Compute. Include both server and serverless.
EC2: Elastic Compute Cloud. Provide virtual servers in the cloud. Some are for memory intensive work, some are for IO intensive, some are for machine learning (accelerated computing) intensive etc.
EC2 Auto scaling. Automatically spin more server or remove server based on policies you set.
Lambda. serverless. Can run in response to triggers. Only charged for compute time.
ECS. EC2 Container Service. Run containers in EC2. This is a container management service.
EKS. Elastic Kubernetes Service. Managed kubernetes service.
Fargate: run containers without having to manage EC2s.
Elastic Beanstalk. Deploy nodejs, Java apps without having to manage underlying infrastructure. The infrastructure is created automatically. I think this is similar to Heroku.
Lightsail. Offer a easy-to-use VPS (virtual private server) solution, similar to that of DigitalOcean at a predefined monthly fee.
Batch. Automatically provision EC2s to run batch jobs.
Outposts. Run AWS at your own data center using the standard AWS console.
you can configure resources in AWS to be internet facing or non-internet facing.
VPC (virtual private cloud). Create private network that you have full control with.
Route 53. A DNS service that provides integration with other AWS services. In my experience, Route 53 lacks certain features and I still prefer Namecheap for resources outside of AWS.
ELB (elastic load balancing). Distribute network traffic across EC2 instances. Automatically add or remove EC2 and helps with fault tolerance.
Direct Connect. Establish dedicated connection from your own data center or office to AWS data center.
App Mesh: based on Envoy. Helps monitor communications between services.
Global Accelerator. A anycast provider. It provides fixed ip addresses even though your resources span several regions.
Security and compliance
IAM: manage user, roles and accesses. Can be federated with other directory services to allow Okta users to allow AWS, for example.
Amazon Inspector: By Installing a agent on EC2, it collects data and do automatically security assessment.
AWS Certificate Manager. Free service to provision and store SSL certificates, can be used for CloudFront and ELB.